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Literature References

Saliva has proven to be an easy to collect and reliable sample source for many biological studies. In some cases, it is even superior to other body fluids for measuring biomarker levels. This section lists references for those wishing additional information on the utility of saliva testing.

“Salivary levels of steroid hormones and other analytes that are protein bound in serum reflect the unbound and active concentration of the hormone. Saliva can be used as a diagnostic specimen not only to obtain information more inexpensively and efficiently than serum, but also to provide information not readily available from serum testing.”

Hofman LF. Human saliva as a diagnostic specimen. J Nutr. 2001;131(5):1621S-5S. doi: 10.1093/jn/131.5.1621S.

“Although saliva has not yet become a mainstream sample source for hormone analysis, it has proven to be reliable and, in some cases, even superior to other body fluids.”

Gröschl M. Current status of salivary hormone analysis. Clin Chem. 2008;54(11):1759-69. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2008.108910.

“Saliva offers a promising diagnostic alternative, compared to blood sampling, for screening for inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular risk factors particularly among pediatric and geriatric populations where blood sampling may be difficult.”

Desai GS, Mathews ST. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(6):730-8. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v5.i6.730.

“Late-night salivary cortisol measurements provide a sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome of more than 90%, and this procedure is emerging as possibly the simplest and most effective screening tool for patients in whom the diagnosis of hypercotisolism is suspected”.

Gardner D, Shoback D, eds. Greenspan’s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology. 8th ed. San Francisco, CA: McGraw Hill; 2007:364.

The Endocrine Society recommends late-night salivary cortisol (two measurements) as one possible initial test for Cushing’s syndrome (along with urine free cortisol and dexamethasone suppression testing).

Nieman LK, Biller BM, Findling JW, et al. The diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(5):1526-40.

The following links will direct you to the abstract summary of the articles listed. These articles are obtained from the U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health.

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Antigliadin Antibody IgA
Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA and DHEA(s)]
Follicle Stimulating (FSH) & Lutenizing (LH)
Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
Testosterone & Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)